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Entomotoxicology: Insects as Toxicological Indicators and the Impact of Drugs and Toxins on Insect Development

Posted in Forensic Entomology & DNA Barcoding by paibiopai on January 23, 2011

Careful analyses of the community of insects encountered on a decomposing body, combined with knowledge of insect biology, ecology, and local environmental conditions can often provide valuable forensic insights. These can include the estimation of time since death, movement of the remains after death, indication of antemortem injuries, and the presence of drugs or toxins.
Over the past 2 decades, there has been an apparent increase in the incidence of drug related deaths reported within the U.S. and other countries. Decedents in such cases are, in many instances, not discovered for a substantial period of time (days or weeks). The
resulting state of advanced decomposition and environmental recycling typically encountered in these situations often dictates the employment of various entomological methodologies. The entomological techniques most frequently utilized are based on comprehensive analyses of the insects and other arthropods associated with (more…)

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What information can a forensic entomologist provide at the death scene?

Posted in Forensic Entomology & DNA Barcoding by paibiopai on November 23, 2009

Forensic entomologists are commonly called upon to determine the postmortem interval or “time since death” in homicide investigations.  More specifically, the forensic entomologist estimates a portion of the postmortem interval based on the age of the insect present.  This entomological based estimation is most commonly called the “Time Since Colonization”.  Based on the factors in a particular investigation, this may, or may not, closely approximate the entire postmortem interval.  In either case, it is the duty of the Forensic Pathologist, Medical Examiner, or Coroner to estimate the postmortem interval, and the Forensic Entomologist may assist them in providing information on the “time since colonization”, which can ultimately be used to substantiate a portion of the postmortem interval.

The forensic entomologist can use a number of different techniques including species succession, larval weight, larval length, and a more technical method known as the accumulated degree hour technique which can be very precise if the necessary data is available.  A qualified forensic entomologist can also make inferences as to possible postmortem movement of a corpse.  Some flies prefer specific habitats such as a distinct preference for laying their eggs in an outdoor or indoor environment.   Flies can also exhibit preferences for carcasses in shade or sunlit conditions of the (more…)

Using forensic entomology to determine whether the body has been moved after death

Posted in Forensic Entomology & DNA Barcoding by paibiopai on November 23, 2009

After death, a succession of fungi, bacteria and animals will colonize the dead body. The substrate on which the body is lying will also change over time. Leakage of fluids from the dead body will lead to the disappearance of certain insects, and other insects will increase as the time goes. A forensic entomologist can then look for how long the body has been there by looking at the fauna at the body, and also estimate the time the body has been lying there by sampling soil insects underneath the dead body. If there is a difference in the estimates, and the analysis of the soil suggests a short PMI, and the analysis of the body fauna suggests (more…)

Finding the Cause of Death using Forensic Entomology

Posted in Forensic Entomology & DNA Barcoding by paibiopai on November 20, 2009

In a crime investigation, there is not only of great interest to find out when a victim died, but also of interest to find out how the victim died, as this can be used to find the killer.

In some instances the insects themselves are the killers, in other instances the insects occuring on the carrion can shed a light on what happened when the victim died.

Wasps and bees, for example, can inject venom through a sting. Some people are sensitive and allergic to these venoms, and can die if not treated in time. One other important aspect of wasps and bees are their effect on drivers. Many car accidents are probably caused by some wasp, bee or bumble-bee coming through the window, causing hysteria, or a distraction from the road leading to a collision or other accidents. In some cases wasps and bees has been used as murder weapons,  (more…)

What happen after death ? -pathology physiology forensic-

Posted in Gado-Gado CampuR aduK,, by paibiopai on November 20, 2009

BCSO-What happens after death?

Everybody will die, that is one thing that we are absolutely certain of. What exactly is death, and what happens in the time after death? From a biological point of view, death is a process, not an event. This is because the different tissues and organs in a living body dies at different rates. We can divide death into somatic death and cellular death. Somatic death is when the individual is not longer a unit of society, because he is irreversibly unconscious, and unaware of himself and the world.

Cellular death is when the cells quits respiration and metabolism. When all cells are dead, the body is dead. But all cells do not die simultaneously, except perhaps in a nuclear explosion. Even in a victim of a car bomb, where the body becomes fragmented, individual cells will continue to live for a few minutes or longer. Different celltypes can live for different times after cardiac arrest. Nervous cells in the brain are particulary vulnerable to oxygen deprivation and will die within 3-7 minutes after (more…)

Estimating Time of Death with Forensic Entomology

Posted in Forensic Entomology & DNA Barcoding by paibiopai on November 20, 2009

After the initial decay, and the body begins to smell, different types of insects are attracted to the dead body. The insects that usually arrives first is the Diptera, in particular the blow flies or Calliphoridae and the flesh flies or Sarcophagidae.

The females will lay their eggs on the body, especially around the natural orifices such as the nose, eyes(2), and ears(2). If the body has wounds the eggs are also laid in such. Flesh flies do not lay eggs, but deposits larvae instead.

After some short time, depending on species, the egg hatches into a small larvae. This larvae lives on the dead tissue and grows fast. After a little time the larva molts, and reaches the second larval instar. Then it eats very much, and it molts to its third instar. When the larvae is fully grown it becomes restless and begins to wander. It is now in its prepupal stage. The prepupae then molts into a pupae, but keeps the third larval instars skin, which becomes the so-called puparium. Typically it takes between one week and two weeks from the egg to the pupae stage. The exact time depends on the species and the temperature in the surroundings.

The theory behind estimating time of death, or rather the post mortem interval (PMI for short) (more…)

General SOP for Forensic Entomology -Working in Death Scenes-

Posted in Forensic Entomology & DNA Barcoding by paibiopai on October 9, 2009
This is how we work on death scenes collecting forensic entomology evidence..
just click here to see the rest.. (more…)

How Diverse is Forensic Entomology?

Posted in Gado-Gado CampuR aduK,, by paibiopai on October 7, 2009

Here are a few examples: The diverse applications of forensic entomology include the detection of abuse in children and neglect of the elderly.  Published cases exist that detail parents intentionally using wasps and bees to sting their children as a form of punishment.  Additionally, entomological evidence has been used to prove neglect and lack of proper care for wounds existing on the elderly under both private and institutional care.

It is theorized that the stings (or mere presence) of bees and wasps may be responsible for a large number of single occupant car accidents that seem to lack a definitive cause.  Some accident studies have shown (more…)

forensic entomology

Posted in Forensic Entomology & DNA Barcoding by paibiopai on October 7, 2009

to be more specifically, my thesis topic is about forensic entomology in molecular view especially in molecular mtDNA barcoding

just FYI,,

what is forensic entomology???

Forensic Entomology is the use of the insects, and their arthropod relatives that inhabit decomposing remains to aid legal investigations.  The broad field of forensic entomology is commonly broken down into three general areas: medicolegal, urban, and stored product pests.  The medicolegal section focuses on the criminal component of the legal system and deals with the necrophagous (or carrion) feeding insects that typically infest human remains. The urban aspect deals with the (more…)

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